Citizen Service 

     

RAFI  AHMAD KIDWAI COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE,  SEHORE (M. P.) 

 

Research

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Major research work is being done on soybean,  pulses, sugarcane and cropping systems at this college,  Besides these projects, work is also on progress on watershed management, tissue culture and bio-control projects.

AICRP  on  Soybean : Madhya Pradesh has an unique distinction ofJawahar Soybean-335 : A most Popular Varity having more than 80 % soybean area of the country and is rightly designated as Soya State. Spectacular growth rate of this crop in Madhya Pradesh has no parallel in the crop history and has distinctly improved the socio-economic status of the farmers. The organized research on soybean was started initially at Jabalpur (1967-81) and thereafter, the main Centre was shifted to Sehore in 1981. The technology emanated, based on research work done at Sehore, is as following  

(i) The recently released variety JS 335, having distinct yield superiority over all the existing varieties, wider adaptability across the country and ability to withstand biotic and abiotic stresses was developed at this Centre. Variety JS(SH) 92-37 has shown its promise in southern and central zone and is likely to be released soon.

(ii) In  weed management, use of granular  formulation of weedicide, ABud Proliferation and No podding Problem in Soyabeenlachlor (Lasso-10 G ) has been popularized in the State. A good number of pre-emergence and pre-plant weedicides, like pendimathalin 30EC, fluchloralin 48EC and metolachlor 40 EC have been evaluated and recommended. Moreover,  post emergence weedicides quizalufop ethyl 5 EC, imazethapyr 9 EC and fenoxyprop-p-ethyl 9 EC have been recommended for management of weeds in standing crop.

(iii) The newer insecticides which are more economic and more effective (Triazophos 40 EC, Methomyl 12.5 L, Chlorpyriphos 20 EC) over conventional ones for the control of most of the major insect pests in the state have been identified and recommended.  

(iv) Use  of safer biopesticide, 5 % neem-seed-water extract and bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis @ 1 l /ha for the control of semilooper have been recommended. Use of chemical pesticides may be avoided, when  natural parasitazation of semiloopers with fungus, Beauveria bassiana  is   more than 60 %.  

  (V) The Wide spared problem of no  podding and bud proliferation has been resolved for the first time in the world and its successful management has been worked out and recommended. Inter Cropping of Soybean with Arhar

(vi) Spray of carbendazim 50 w.p. @ 0.05 % for Myrothecium and other leaf and pod diseases; copper-oxychloride @ 0.2 % + streptomycin @ 200 ppm for bacterial pustule and  hexaconazole, propiconazole or triadimefon @ 0.1 % for rust have been recommended  

(vii) Soybean planting should be avoided prior to 2nd week of June, plant population be maintained near 0.4-0.6 m/ ha and excessive use of nitrogenous  fertilizers be discouraged to check the spread of pests and diseases.

(viii) Use of effective strains of Rhizobium + PSM with  50 % of recommended dose of P2O5  (30 kg P2O5/ ha) through single super  phosphate or 60 kg P2O5 through rock phosphate for economy and better utilization of phosphatic fertilizers.  

Under field demonstration, the farmers have harvested an average yield of 25 to 30 q/ ha. As against the above yield potential, the State productivity is still hovering around 10 q/ ha. The future strntegy is aimed to bridge this gap and address the various production constraints though development of varieties and improved management practices, the future strategy is mainly aimed at developing  varieties having still higher yield & oil content; better insulation against various stresses especially rust, pod-blight, YMV and stem-fly; suitable for mechanized cultivation and abnormal  situations of late or early planting.

Strategy also includes identification of effective and economical new post emergence herbicides; suitable agronomic practices for mechanized farming;  identification of the sources of resistance for leaf spots;  bud-blight, rust, stem-fly, aphids, jassids and leaf  defoliator; effective chemical/ biological insecticides and fungicides for the control of major insect pests and diseases; and identification of more effective strains of Rhizobium and PSM.

AICRP  on Pulses - Chickpea : The project was started at Jabalpur Efficacy of Chickpea Rhizobium Strain JGRS 65 in Fieldin 1968 and shifted to Sehore in June 1982 as AICRP on Pulses. Since Uniform font size 2000-01. The project has been trifurcated as AICRP on chickpea main  centre and AICRP on Pigeonpea and AICRP MULLaRP. The major achievements are as follows.

(i) Varietal improvement :

In pigeonpea variety JA-4 with high yield, wilt resistance has been released and becoming popular amongst farmers. Varieties KM-7 and Asha (ICPL 87119) with higher yield, wilt and sterility mosaic resistance and medium maturity have been adopted and recommended after test.

In chickpea, varieties JG 74, JG 315, JG 218, JAKI 9218 JG 130 have early maturity with high yield and resistant to fusarium wilt have been developed & released. A multiple disease resistant variety - JG -16 has been identified and released for central zone. Varieties Bharati (ICCV 10), Vijay (Phule G 81-1-1), and Swetha (ICCV 2 kabuli type) have been recommended after test.

In lentil, varieties JSL 1 and JLS 2 having bold seed and tolerance to drought have been released. Recently, JL-3 having bold seed and tolerance to wilt and brought  has been released for general cultivation in central zone.

(ii) Production technology

Use of sulphur @ 20 kg/ ha in chickpea and 40 kg/ ha in pigeonpea; pre-emergence application of pendimethalin 1 kg ai./ ha in chickpea (irrigated) and alachlor 2 kg ai./ ha or pendimethalin 1 kg ai./ ha in pigeonpea for weed control; application of Indore compost/ biogas slurry 2.5 tones/ ha + Rhizobium inoculation + PBS for saving 50 kg DAP/ ha ; and in late sown irrigated chickpea, application of 40 kg N/ ha have been recommended for improve yield.

(iii) Plant protection :

Heliothis is the major insect pest in pigeonpea and chickpea Podfly also causes considerable damage in pigeonpea. Good control has been achieved by two sprays of endosulfan (0.07 %) or monocrotophos (0.04 %) followed by one spray of dimethoate (0.03 %) starting from 50 % flowering at 15 days interval in pigeonpea while for chickpea two sprays of endosulfan (0.07 %) or monocrotophos (0.04 %) starting from 50 % flowering at 15 days interval are recommended. For dusting, quinalphos, endosulfan or methylparathion is recommended. Work on integrated pest management is in progress. For control of wilt diseases, resistance has been identified in pigeonpea, chickpea and lentil, while for foliar diseases of mungbean and urdbean spray of carbendazim 0.05 % at 30 and 45 DAS is recommended. Phytophthora blight of pigeonpea was effectively controlled by adopting integrated treatment including ridge sowing + seed treatment with Metalaxyl (Apron) @ 6 g/ kg seed + soybean as cover crop + tolerant variety.

(iv) Rhizobium :

Very efficient strains of Rhizobium viz., JGRS 65 for chickpea and JARS 70 for pigeonpea have been identified which are recognized throughout the country and are maintained at Division of Microbiology, IARI, New Delhi.

The future emphasis will be directed mainly on development of chickpea genotypes (desi, kabuli, and gulabi) having high yield and resistance to abiotic (drought and high temperature) and biotic (wilt dry root rot) collor rot and stunt) stresses. In lentil bold seeded, early maturing , wilt and rust resistant varieties will be developed. For pigeonpea, medium to late maturing, wilt and phytophthora resistant varieties will be developed. For managing Helicothis podfly weeds and diseases, IPM technology will be developed. Development of more efficient strains of Rhizobium for pigeonpea and chickpea; and identification of high nitrogen fixing genotype of chickpea will be take up.

AICRP  on Cropping System :   In cropping system research planting of arhar and soybean 2:4 ratio has been found suitable and recommended. Soybean-chickpea/ lentil cropping sequence has been found most remunerative under rainfed/ very limited irrigation conditions. Research work is in progress on efficient use of applied P and Zn in major crops of the region, 10 kg zinc/ ha in alternate year through Zinc sulphate in soybean-wheat cropping sequence in addition to recommended dose of fertilizer.  

AICRP on Sugarcane : The sugarcane research work is in progress at this Centre since 1961. The project was further strengthened afterCOJN 86-141 : A high Sugared Early Maturing Variety implementation of AICRP in 1970 and sugarcane seed production under centrally sponsored scheme in 1976. The major achievements are as follows

  With the consistent efforts of scientist, the farmers have adopted improved varieties and the area under old and degenerate varieties has been reduced from 70 % (1984) to 8 % (1995-96). Also 17 % area, has been covered by high yielding and high sugared early maturing varieties. This has helped in prolonging crushing season and in increasing sugar recovery from 9 to 10 %. An early genotype Co JN 86-141 has been released for Madhya Pradesh. Co JN 86-572 has entered Advance Vareital Trial and will be released for the state in the coming years.

Application of Azotobactor, press mud cake and PBS has been recommended to save 25 % nitrogenous and phosphatic fertilizers.

For making sugarcane cultivation more remunerative, intercrop of rajma, onion, garlic and isabgol is being popularized. Similarly, for control of early shoot borer, use of granulosis virus and Sturmiopsis  Inference proved very effective. Under the breeder seed and foundation seed production program, nearly 100 to 300 t hot air treated disease free seed of newly developed varieties of sugarcane is produced every year and supplied to farmers.

In future, biotechnological approaches will be adopted to develop high sugared and high yielding varieties,  resistant to diseases and insect pests. A new technology will be developed to combat water stress conditions in the irrigation constraints areas, specifically during summer.